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  1. Origin, composition, and flux of dissolved organic carbon in the Hubbard Brook valley. 1988. McDowell, W.H., and G.E. Likens. Ecol. Monogr. 58:177-195.

  2. Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in response to clear-cutting northern hardwood forest. 1991. J.A. Duggin, G.K. Voigt, and F.H. Bormann. Soil Biol. Biochem. 23:779-787.

  3. Studies of cation budgets in the Southern Appalachians on four experimental watersheds with contrasting vegetation. 1973. P.L. Johnson, and W.T. Swank. Ecology 54:70-80.

  4. Shredders and riparian vegetation. 1989. K.W. Cummins, M.A. Wilzbach, D.M.Gates, J.B. Perry, and W.B. Taliaferro. BioScience 39:24-30.

  5. Food Webs. S.L. Pimm. Chapman and Hall, Pub. New York. 1982.

  6. Effects of fish in river food webs. 1990. M.E. Power. Science 250:811-814.


Feeder Streams
  1. Mountain Streams. Paul Fleisher. Marshall Cavendish Corp. 1998.

  2. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks; section 4-2, A.N. Strahler In: Handbook of Applied Hydrology (Ven te Chow, ed.), McGraw- Hill, New York. 1964.

  3. An alternative for characterizing stream size. R.M. Hughes, and J.M. Omernik. In: Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems (T.D. Fontaine and S.M. Bartell, eds). Ann Arbor Science. pp.87-102. 1983.


Spring Holes
  1. Groundwater Hydrology. D.K. Todd. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 534 p. 1981.

  2. Groundwater and stream ecology. 1983. H.B.N. Haynes. Hydrobiologia 100:93-99.

  3. The ecological significance of exchange processes between rivers and groundwater. M. Brunke, and Gonser, T. 1997. Freshwater Biol. 37:1-33.

  4. Studies in crenobiology. The biology of springs and springbrooks. (Botosaneanu, ed.) Backhuys Pub. Leiden, The Netherlands. 261 pp.


Limestone Rivers
  1. A reverence for rivers. L.B. Leopold. 1977. Geology 5:429-430.

  2. Process Geomorphology. Ritter et al., 1995, Wm. C. Brown Publishers.


Tailwater Fisheries
  1. Impounded Rivers. Pettes, G.E. John Wiley, Chichester, England, 1984.

  2. The Ecology of Regulated Streams: (Proceedings of the first International Symposium on Regulated Streams held in Erie, Pa. April 18-20, 1979). Plenum Pubs. New York. 1980.

  3. Regulated Streams. Advances in Ecology (John F. Craigg and J. Bryan Kemper, eds.) Plenum Press, New York 1987.

  4. Colorado River benthic ecology in Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A.: Dams, tributaries, and geomorphological influences. L.E. Stevens, J.P. Shannon, and D.W. Blinn. 1997. Regul. Rivers 13:129-150.

Energy Considerations: The Flow Of Life Through The River

Stream-side Foliage And Its Role In Stream Ecology
  1. Trees and streams. 1971. L.B. Leopold. J. Theor. Biol. 31: 339-354

  2. Biogeochemistry of a Forested Ecosystem. 2nd Ed. Gene E. Likens and F. Herbert Bormann. Springer-Verlag, Pubs., New York, Berlin, Heidelberg. 158 p. 1995.

  3. Linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 1974. G.E. Likens and F.H. Bormann. Bioscience 24: 447-456.

  4. Long Term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alternatives. (Gene E. Likens, ed). Springer-Verlag, New York, Heidelberg and Berlin. 214 p. 1988.

  5. Recovery of three New Zealand rural streams as they pass through native forest remnants. R.G. Storey, D.R. and Cowley. 1997. Hydrobiologica 353:63-76.

  6. Organic matter budgets for streams: a synthesis. R.J. Webster, and J.L. Meyer. 1997. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 16:141-161.

  7. Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams. W.R. Meehan. 1996. US Forestry Service Research Paper PNW 496:1-14.


  1. The Ecology of Hyphomycetes. (Felix Barlocher, ed.). Ecological Studies 94 Springer-Verlag, Pub., Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. 223 p. 1992.

  2. Leaf Breakdown in stream ecosystems. Benfield, E.F. In: Methods in Stream Ecology (F. Richard Hauer and Gary A. Lamberti, eds). Academic Press, New York. pp. 579-589. 1996

  3. Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates. Cummins, K.W., and M.J. Klug. In: Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. pp. 47-172. 1979.

  4. A comparison of primary production in stream ecosystems. G.A. Lamberti, and A.D. Steinman. 1997. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 16:95-104.

  5. Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs. J.B. Wallace, et al 1997. Science 277:102-104.


Wild Flowers
  1. A Field Guide to Wildflowers: Northeastern and North Central America (Peterson Field Guide). R. T. Peterson. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1998

  2. Rehabilitation of River Margins. A.R.G. Large and G.E. Petts. In: River Restoration (G.Petts and Peter Calow, eds.) Blackwell Science, Ltd., Oxford, England. pp.106-123. 1996.

  3. Concept of the Community In: Ecology. 3rd Ed. Robert E. Ricklefs. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York. pp. 655-676. 1990.

  4. Sunflecks and their importance to forest understory plants. Robin L. Chazdon In: Advances in Ecological Research. Vol. 18 (M. Begon, A.H. Fitter, E.D.Ford, and A. Macfadyen, eds). Academic Press, New York. pp. 1-63. 1988.

  5. Reconciling landscape and local views of aquatic communities: lessons learned from Michigan trout streams. M.J. Wiley, S.L. Kohler, and P.W. Seelbach. 1997. Freshwater Biol. 37:133-148.
Macro invertebrates
  1. Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Richard W. Merritt and Kenneth W. Cummins, eds. Kendall-Hunt, Pub. Co. 1995.

  2. Trout Stream Insects: an Orvis Streamside Guide. Dick Pobst. The Lyons Press. New York. 96 p. 1991.

  3. The Ecology of Aquatic Insects (V.H. Resh and D.M. Rosenberg, eds). Praeger Pubs. New York. 1984.

  4. The role of macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystem function. J.B. Wallace, and J.R. Webster. 1996. Ann. Rev. Entom. 41:115-139.

  5. Microbial activity and macro invertebrate colonization of wood in a New Zealand forest stream. J.L.Tank, and M.J. Winterbourn. 1996. New Zealand J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 30:271-280.
    F. Power, M.E. 1990. Effects of fish in river food webs. Science 250:811-814


  1. Invertebrate drift: a review. 1988. J. A. Brittan, and T.J. Eikeland. Hydrobiologica 166:77-93.

  2. Trout predation and the size composition of stream drift. 1978. J.D. Allan. Limnology and Oceanography 23:1231-1237.

  3. Macroinvertebrate Movement: Drift, Colonization and Emergence. Leonard A. Smock. In: Methods in Stream Ecology (F. Richard Hauser and Gary A. Lamberti, eds) Academic Press, New York. pp 371-390. 1996.

  4. Invertebrate drift and longitudinal transport processes in streams. J. Lancaster A.G.Hildrew, and C. Gjerlov. Canadian J. Fish.Aquatic. Sci. 53:572-582.

  5. Hyporheic Zones. Clifford N. Dahm and H. Maurice Valett. In: Methods in Stream Ecology (F. Richard Hauser and Gary A. Lamberti, eds) Academic Press, New York. pp 107-119. 1996

  6. A perspective on the surface freshwater-groundwater ecotone. 1992. Vervier, P., J. Gilbert, P. Marmonier, and M.J. Dole-Oliver. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 11:93-102.
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